Sophie Costa

Docteure – Collaboratrice bénévole – DYNAPP

Docteure en Histoire et Archéologie des mondes anciens et médiévaux - DYNAPP


Titre de la thèse : Evolution socio-environnementale des oasis depuis les 5 derniers millénaires dans le sud-est arabique (Oasis de Ras al-Khaimah et Masafi, Emirats Arabes Unis) : approche géoarchéologique et géochimique

Mots clés : géoarchéologie, géomorphologie, archéologie, pédologie, oasis, agriculture, paléoclimat, Emirats arabes unis, sud-est arabique, anthrosol, pratiques agricoles, irrigation, Pléistocène supérieur, Holocène

Direction : Ricardo González-Villaescusa et Louise Purdue

Date de soutenance : le 24/03/2022 au laboratoire du CEPAM

Résumé de la thèse


L’agriculture en milieu aride est en équilibre permanent entre variations environnementales et adaptations technologiques et économiques. Depuis les premières études archéologiques menées dans le sud-est arabique, il est couramment admis que c’est le modèle oasien traditionnel qui y est employé depuis près de 5000 ans, restitution fondée sur les études des structures hydrauliques et des restes archéobotaniques. Pourtant, dans un milieu aussi sensible et dans le contexte actuel d’abandon de ces espaces, il est difficile de croire à une trajectoire si stable, et il apparait important de comprendre leur dynamique sur le long terme. A ce jour, très peu d’études diachroniques ont été menées sur les espaces agricoles oasiens en eux-mêmes. Pourtant, leurs sols résultent de l'action combinée de processus naturels et anthropiques, et semblent pouvoir constituer des archives précieuses pour la compréhension des trajectoires Homme-milieu. Afin de promouvoir les séquences pédo-sédimentaires oasiennes comme objets d’étude à part entière, nous avons développé une approche géoarchéologique, mise en oeuvre dans les oasis de Masafi et de Ras al-Khaimah aux Emirats arabes unis, qui vise à exploiter leur potentiel d’archivage, tant environnemental qu’anthropique.

Afin de comprendre et retracer l’origine et le mode de construction des sols oasiens, mais aussi d’identifier les signatures pédo-sédimentaires caractéristiques de différentes pratiques culturales, des référentiels sédimentaires et agricoles ont été créés sur l’actuel. Appliqués à l’étude de 37 séquences profondes, dans une démarche exploratoire des oasis qui se veut systémique, multiscalaire et diachronique, nous avons ainsi pu retracer la série d’événements anthropiques et/ou naturels qui a mené à leur édification.

Les séquences oasiennes ont ainsi enregistré les fluctuations climatiques qui caractérisent la fin du Pléistocène et le début de l’Holocène. Des phases de réactivation éolienne ont été identifiées durant les MIS4 (~65 ka BP) et MIS2 (~21 ka BP), et des reprises alluviales ont été observées au début du MIS3 (~54 ka BP), au tardiglaciaire (~15 ka BP) et au début de l’Holocène (~8-6 ka BP), dans les piedmonts et les montagnes al-Hajar. Des incisions ont aussi été mises en évidence dans la plaine de Sir, une première entre 9 et 8 ka BP, et une seconde entre 6 et 4.2 ka BP. Si au cours de la seconde moitié de l’Holocène, les dynamiques sédimentaires sont en partie artificialisées par les installations oasiennes, des réactivations alluviales ont pu être identifiées entre ~4 et 3 ka BP, et autour de ~1.3/1 ka BP. Une forte déstabilisation hydro-climatique est observée entre 3 et 2 ka BP, aboutissant à une aridification autour de 2 ka BP. Parallèlement, plusieurs cycles d’emprise agricole régionale ont pu être mis en évidence : l’Age du Fer I/II (~3.3-2.6 ka BP), puis la période Islamique ancienne (~1.3-1 ka BP), et enfin la transition entre les périodes Islamique moyenne et récente (~0.6-0.3 ka BP). Une déprise agraire régionale a été documentée à l’Age du Fer III et à la période Pré-Islamique Récente (~2.6-1.7 ka BP). Il apparait donc que si certaines communautés n’ont pu s’affranchir des conditions environnementales fluctuantes, d’autres ont su s’y adapter, alors même qu’une forme de continuum des pratiques agricoles semble exister depuis l’Age du Fer. La part des forçages naturels vs anthropiques semble donc variable au cours du temps.

Outre la restitution des trajectoires de ces oasis qui permet de réalimenter la question de l’émergence, de l’évolution de l’agriculture et des modalités d’occupation du territoire dans la région au cours des millénaires, cette nouvelle approche géoarchéologique propose un outil d’analyse des sols agricoles anciens en milieu semi-aride à aride, applicable à d’autres contextes.




PhD Title: Socio-environmental evolution of oases over the last 5 millennia in Southeast Arabia (Ras al-Khaimah and Masafi Oases, United Arab Emirates): Geoarchaeological and geochemical approach

PhD keywords: geoarchaeology, geomorphology, archaeology, soil study, oasis, agriculture, paleoclimate, United Arab Emirates, south-east Arabia, anthrosol, agricultural practices, irrigation, Late Pleistocene, Holocene

PhD abstract: Agriculture in arid environments is in a permanent balance between environmental variations and technological and economic adaptations. Since the first archaeological studies conducted in Southeast Arabia, it has been commonly accepted that the traditional oasis model has been used there for nearly 5,000 years, a restitution based on studies of hydraulic structures and archaeobotanical remains. However, in this type of sensitive environment and in the current context of abandonment of these areas, it is difficult to believe in such a stable trajectory, and it seems important to understand their long-term dynamics. Until now, very few diachronic studies have been carried out on the agricultural areas of the oases themselves. However, their soils are the result of the combined action of natural and anthropogenic processes, and seem to constitute valuable archives for understanding human-environment trajectories. In order to promote the study of oasis pedo-sedimentary sequences, we have developed a geoarchaeological approach, implemented in the Masafi and Ras al-Khaimah oases in the United Arab Emirates, which aims to exploit their archival potential, both environmental and anthropic.

In order to understand and trace the origin and construction processes of the oasis soils, as well as to identify pedo-sedimentary signatures characteristic of different cultivation practices, we have created a series of sedimentary and agricultural reference collections. Applied to the study of 37 deep sequences, in a systemic, multiscalar and diachronic exploratory approach to oases, we were thus able to trace the series of anthropic and/or natural events that led to their construction.

The oasis sequences have thus recorded the climatic fluctuations that characterise the end of the Pleistocene and the beginning of the Holocene. Phases of aeolian reactivation were identified during MIS4 (~65 ka BP) and MIS2 (~21 ka BP), and alluvial reactivations were observed in the early MIS3 (~54 ka BP), Late Glacial (~15 ka BP) and early Holocene (~8-6 ka BP), in the piedmonts and al-Hajar mountains. Incisions have also been observed in the Sir plain, the first between 9 and 8 ka BP, and the second between 6 and 4.2 ka BP. If during the second half of the Holocene, sedimentary dynamics are partly artificialised by oases installations, alluvial reactivations could be identified between ~4 and 3 ka BP, and around ~1.3/1 ka BP. A strong hydro-climatic destabilisation is observed between 3 and 2 ka BP, leading to aridification around 2 ka BP. In parallel, several cycles of regional agricultural expansion have been identified: Iron Age I/II (~3.3-2.6 ka BP), then Early Islamic period (~1.3-1 ka BP), and finally the transition between Middle and Recent Islamic periods (~0.6-0.3 ka BP). A regional agrarian decline has been documented during Iron Age III and Late Pre-Islamic period (~2.6-1.7 ka BP). It thus appears that while some communities were unable to overcome fluctuating environmental conditions, others were able to adapt, even though a form of continuum of agricultural practices seems to exist since the Iron Age. The role of natural vs. anthropogenic forcings seems to vary over time.

In addition to the restitution of the trajectories of these oases, which feeds the question of the emergence and evolution of agriculture and land use in the region over the millenia, this new geoarchaeological approach offers a tool for the analysis of ancient agricultural soils in semi-arid to arid environments, which can be applied to other contexts.

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