Cristina De Stefanis

Docteure – STEP
Cursus Universitaire

2011 : Laurea in Archeologia (équivalent master 2 recherche) à l’Università degli Studi di Siena (Italie)
Mémoire : “L’analisi funzionale per lo studio delle industrie litiche. Le macro-tracce del complesso neolitico di Spazzavento (Sesto Fiorentino – FI)” sous la direction de Nicoletta Volante, codirection de Cristina Lemorini

Sujet de thèse : Systèmes techniques des derniers chasseurs-cueilleurs et des premiers agro-pasteurs du domaine liguro-provençal (7000-5500 av. J.-C.) : approche fonctionnelle

Directrice de thèse : Sylvie Beyries

Date de début : 01/10/2012

Date de fin : 20/06/2018

Résumé

Dans l’arc liguro-provençal, la coexistence des derniers chasseurs-cueilleurs et des premiers agro-pasteurs entre 7000 et 5500 av. J-C. engendre des interrogations sur la nature de leurs interactions. Colonisation et acculturation sont les deux piliers du phénomène de Néolithisation. Dans l’espace méditerranéen nord-occidental, celle-ci résulte d’évolutions techno-culturelles successives se manifestant par une diffusion arythmique. Ces sociétés, respectivement du techno-complexe Castelnovien de la fin du Mésolithique et du complexe Impresso-Cardial du Néolithique ancien, ne partagent pas les mêmes sites mais peuvent exploiter les mêmes ressources lithiques.

Notre éclairage de ce moment de transition repose sur l’étude de cinq sites pour lesquels les analyses interdisciplinaires ont caractérisé finement le contexte chrono-culturel, économique et environnemental : Mourre-de-Sève, la Font-aux-Pigeons, Monte Frignone, Arene Candide et Pendimoun. Ils illustrent pour les uns la variété des biotopes exploités au Mésolithique et constituent  pour les autres, les premières attestations du modèle économique néolithique dans la région.

C’est par une approche fonctionnelle des systèmes de productions lithiques qui combine l’observation à faible et à fort grossissement (loupe binoculaire et microscope) des traces d’utilisation sur les outils que nous entrons dans les univers techniques de chacun de ces groupes. Les résultats portent ainsi sur les productions lithiques mais aussi sur la production céramique et les comportements cynégétiques ou agricoles.

La caractérisation des spectres fonctionnels, des ressources exploitées et des traitements exercés vient préciser la fonction de chacun des sites et les modalités de gestion des territoires associés à ces deux techno-complexes. Dans le complexe Impresso-cardial, on relève des éléments de continuité avec les premiers agro-pasteurs du sud de l’Italie, dans le mode de fonctionnement des projectiles et dans les techniques de moisson. L’étude de plusieurs phases d’occupations de ce complexe donne à voir une évolution dans le travail de l’os notamment et l’apparition de nouvelles pratiques comme l’utilisation des industries lithiques dans la fabrication des céramiques. Parmi les occupations castelnoviennes, aucun témoignage matériel d’emprunts depuis le monde néolithique n’est visible alors que dans le complexe Impresso-cardial, de nouveaux transferts depuis les traditions mésolithiques apparaissent : la typologie et le fonctionnement des projectiles ainsi que d’outils employés pour le traitement des végétaux indiquent une forte convergence. Les recherches sur ces interactions doivent se poursuivre, tout au long du chemin de la Néolithisation, pour saisir les causes profondes de cet immense changement économique et donc, social.

 

Mots clés : Systèmes techniques, Mésolithique, Néolithique, Analyse fonctionnelle, Industrie lithique

 

Abstract

The coexistence of the last hunter-gatherers and the first farmers in the Liguro-Provencal arc between 7000 and 5000 B.C. generates questions about the nature of their interactions. Colonization and acculturation are the two main models used to explain the phenomenon of Neolithisation. In the northwestern Mediterranean area, this is the result of successive techno-cultural evolutions which are manifested in the form of an arrhythmic diffusion. These societies which belonged to the late Mesolithic Castelnovian techno-complex and the early Neolithic Impresso-Cardial complex, respectively, did not occupy the same sites but could have exploited the same lithic resources.

Our understanding of this moment of transition is based on the interdisciplinary investigation of five sites including Mourre-de-Sève, la Font-aux-Pigeons, Monte Frignone, Arene Candide and Pendimoun that allowed for a precise characterization of the chrono-cultural, economic and environmental contexts. Certain sites illustrate the variety of biotypes exploited during the Mesolithic, while the remaining sites illuminate the first attestations of a Neolithic economic model for the region.

It is by means of a functional approach to lithic production systems that combines low and high magnification (binocular magnifier and microscope) of use-wear traces on tools, that we can access the technical universe of each of these groups. The results concern the lithic and ceramic production, as well as the hunting and agricultural behaviors of these populations.

The characterization of the functional spectra, the resources exploited and the processing techniques clarifies the function of each of these sites and the modalities of territorial management of these two techno-complexes. In the context of the Impresso-Cardial cultural complex, we identify elements of continuity with the first agro-pastoralists of southern Italy and especially in what concerns projectile use and harvesting techniques. The study of several occupation of this cultural complex demonstrates an evolution in bone working techniques and the appearance of new practices such as the use of lithic industries for ceramic fabrication. There is no evidence for Neolithic material influence on the Castelnovian culture, while in the Impresso-Cardial complex, a strong convergence is indicated through the cultural transfer of Mesolithic traditions including the typology and use of projectiles as well as tools used for plant processing. Continued research on the entire period of Neolithisation is needed in order to understand the profound causes of this significant economic and social transformation.

 

Keywords : technical systems, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Use-wear analyses, Lithic

 

Publications (avant 2011)

– De Stefanis C. 2008, L’attività della filatura nel Neolitico di Chiomonte. Analisi funzionale tipologica per un’interpretazione della documentazione materiale, Bulletin d’Études Préhistoriques et Archéologiques Alpines, XIX, pp.45-55.

Communications scientifiques

– Binder D.; Battentier J.; Bouby, L.; Brochier J-E; Carré A.; Cucchi T.; Delhon C.; De Stefanis C.; Drieu L.; Allowen E.; Girdland Flink L.; Goude G.; Gourichon L.; Guillon S.; Hamon C.; Thielbault S., 2017 , “Earliest farming in the North-Western Mediterranean. Evidences from Castellar –Pendimoun during the 6thmill. BCE”, Communication orale, 23rd Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists, 30 aoute - 3 septembre 2017.
– De Stefanis C.; Binder D.; Maggi R.; Beyries S., 2016. “Le Arene Candide e l’Abri de Pendimoun, due siti a ceramica impressa a confronto attraverso un approccio funzionale”, Poster, Italia tra Mediterraneo ed Europa : mobilità, interazioni e scambi. Forlì, 12-15 ottobre 2016.
– De Stefanis C., Beyries S. et Binder D., “Plant-working in an Early Neolithic settlement. The use-wear study on lithic industry of Pendimoun (Castellar – Alpes Maritimes) site. ”, communication orale, colloque AWRANA, Leiden 27-30 Mai 2015.
– Binder D., Battentier J., De Stefanis C., Dini M. (†), Maggi R., Negrino F., Sénépart I., Tozzi C., “ Le Castelnovien des domaines rhodano‐provençal et liguro‐tosco‐émilien: état des lieux fin 2015 ”. Le second Mésolithique, des Alpes à l’Atlantique (VII° ‐ V° millénaire), communication orale à la Table ronde internationale – Strasbourg 3‐4 novembre 2015.
– De Stefanis C., Beyries S. Et Binder D., “Use-wear analysis of a Castelnovian blade and trapeze assemblage. The Mourre de Sève rock shelter (Sorgues-Vaucluse) ”, Session poster du Colloque Mesolife, Selva di Cadore 11-14 Juin 2014
– Trenti F., Nannini L., De Stefanis C., Martini F., Sarti L., VolanteN., “ Raw materials, mobility and exchanges in the florentine area from Mesolithic to early Bronze Age”, Communication orale, Séance de la Société Préhistorique Française, Ressources lithiques, productions et transferts entre Alpes et Méditerranée, Nice 28-29 Mars 2013.
– De Stefanis C. 2007, “Le fusaiole di Chiomonte: analisi funzionale e tipologica”, Session poster, Pionieri delle Alpi. Il pieno Neolitico tra le Alpi Occidentali, Chiomonte, Palazzo Levis, 16-17 novembre 2007.

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